Pilocarpus pinnatifolius.
Jaborandi is a South American tree growing to the height of twenty feet. It is used by South American Indians as an antidote to the bite of serpents of the Trigonocephalus group. The drug has been extensively used in ophthalmic practice for its mydriatic properties. Incidentally its action on the skin and salivary glands was observed and led to extensive provings being made. Robin (C. D. P.) sums up the effects of the drug in doses of 6 grammes of the powdered leaves in infusion: Very soon face becomes red; temporal arteries throb more strongly; then there is a peculiar feeling of heat in the mouth and on face and the flow of saliva begins. Soon the forehead becomes moist and the face more red; then beads of perspiration appear on forehead, cheeks, and temples. The flow of saliva increases, all the salivary glands contributing. The mouth is filled with immense quantities of fluid and expectoration is incessant. At same time perspiration covers face and neck; then the whole body becomes red and moist, and a pleasant warmth is experienced; in a few minutes perspiration breaks out over entire surface and soon runs down on all sides. Meantime other symptoms have supervened. The eyelids first become moist, then tears increase, collect in canthi, then roll down the cheeks; at the same time there is increased secretion of Schneiderian membrane, and increased activity of mucous glands of pharynx, trachea, and bronchi. These effects reach the maximum intensity forty-five minutes after taking the drug and last thirty or forty minutes more. Salivary glands enlarge. Thirst is intense. Pupils slightly contracted. When perspiration and salivation have ceased the subject is prostrated and drowsy, and the parts which secreted excessively become abnormally dry. In addition to these symptoms noted by Robin others have observed: vomiting; diarrhœa; pains in abdomen, especially hypogastric region and pubes; pains in bladder and urging to urinate. Dudgeon has recorded the following interesting case: A gentleman, 45, rose at an early hour and went to the other side of his bedroom to get a dose of Nux 3 for some fancied derangement of his stomach. On coming back to bed he was seized with sudden violent crimson flushing of the face followed almost immediately by profuse perspiration, beginning in the face and head and extending all over the body. This was followed by extreme coldness of the extremities and sickness, terminating in the vomiting chiefly of sour mucus. The attacks recurred every quarter of an hour throughout the day. Not only was he unable to get out of bed, he could not raise himself up in bed, or lie otherwise than on his right side without the most distressing giddiness and a feeling “as if he should die.” Pulse 60, regular and strong; temperature below normal. Ten drops of Jaborandi I were mixed in half a tumbler of water, and a dessertspoonful given immediately and repeated every half-hour. After the second dose the attacks ceased and he was able to take bread and milk without sickness. He had a good night’s rest and was perfectly well the next day (M. H. R., October, 1888). Hale commends its use in women or young girls who have always a dry skin, scanty menses, and tendency of blood to the head. Duncan (H. W., xxxii. 189) has aborted erysipelas by painting the tincture on the part four to five times daily. A sharp smarting, is the first effect, followed by a more agreeable, soothing sensation. In burns, scalds and some forms of eczema and psoriasis the same use has given excellent results. The action of the drug on the eyes is very pronounced and it has been found useful in many conditions of eye weakness, especially hypermetropia, ciliary spasm, convergent strabismus, and after operations for strabismus. Sandesberg (B. J. H., xl. 201) noticed that the internal use of Jaborandi and Pilocarpin in cases of detachment of retina and choroiditis seemed to occasion opacity of the crystalline lens. He treated a horse for irido-choroiditis and large opacities of the vitreous with infusion of Jab. leaves and injections of Pilo. The disease was quickly arrested, the vitreous cleared up completely, but during the first week the crystalline lens became opaque. Bell commends it in diarrhœa with gushing, painless stools; flushed face, profuse salivation, intense thirst; urine dark, scanty (or profuse); profuse sweat. Cooper has seen a violent leucorrhœa caused by Jabor.; also the discharge of a quantity of threadworms. One patient, after having been injected with Pilocarpine, complained of great sensitiveness to cold: constantly taking cold and in dread of bronchitis; the skin too became irritable. Jabor. has a reputation in the old school as a stimulant of the mammary secretion, and a case is quoted from the Lancet in C. D. P. in which a woman whose milk had ceased for a fortnight received gtt. x. of the fluid extract every four hours. The secretion of milk was reestablished, but the patient began to suffer from extreme nervous excitement accompanied by a fixed idea that she should murder all her family with a hatchet. The drug was stopped, and these symptoms disappeared and with them the activity of the mammary glands. The Hom. News, February, 1900, quotes an incidental cure of dysmenorrhœa in a woman, æt. 23, who received five-drop doses of Jabor. for increased eye-tension, which rapidly disappeared. The patient noticed that she passed the next menstrual period without pain though she usually had to spend two to four days in bed. The drug was continued in smaller doses, and the improvement was maintained. “When the period begins with a feeling of coldness and faintness, and neuralgic throbbings in head and pelvis, with backache, a drop or two of Jabor. in hot water will at once relieve” (Cooper). Jabor. has been used as a remedy for baldness, and it forms the principal ingredient in some of the popular hair-restorers. In a number of patients who have been taking it white hair and blonde hair have been observed to turn black. Jabor. acts more on left side. Sometimes the left side only is affected by sweating, the right side being quite dry. Headaches were more noticed on left side. Headache < at noon every day. Eating > distress in stomach.




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